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AUTISM in AFRICA:
Awareness and Action
APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS (ABA)
ABA is concerned with the effect of the environment on behavior and the effects of behavior on the environment. These environmental events (stimuli) are split into two categories, namely antecedents and consequences.
The ABC of ABA
Antecedent Behavior Consequences
Language and Communication Systems
Discrete Trial Training
Functional Behavior Assessment
SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES
Dyslexia (Reading difficulties) Dyscalcula (Quantitative disorders - math Oral language difficulties Dysgraphia (Written language difficulties)
Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (Disorders of attention) Social skills deficits Poor motor abilities
Word Attack Strategy
Text Enhancement Strategies to Facilitate Reading Comprehension
Graphic organizers* Text adaptations* Illustrations Diagrams Semantic feature analysis charts* Study guides Full and partial outlines Highlighting and underlining Concept maps or spatially organized maps showing relationships between people, events, and places
Positive Traits: Creativity Flexibility Enthusiasm and spontaneity Lack of rigidity and good adaptability Energy and drive
Accommodations: To help minimize distractions and increase focus… Seating (proximity, arrangement of seats). Changing the way information is delivered (use visuals, limit amount given at a specific time, create outlines, verbal/visual directions). Modifying student work (modify content of sheets; allow multiple ways of demonstrating learning, chunk assignments into smaller segments, extra time). Organization (materials, assignments, self).
Before lesson – signal the start of lesson; list objectives and materials on board.
During lesson – use simple directions; vary instructional pace and vary types of activities; use visuals; give some movement breaks; allow physical manipulatives.
After lesson – review key ideas; review assignments and write on board; use specific terms about lesson follow up; check for understanding with student.
Thinking Out loud
Early intervention can make a highly significant difference. Consult with your child's doctor if you notice the signs given and think your child might have autism or any neurological disorder.
If needed, your doctor can then refer you to a specialist to make a diagnosis. Relevant specialists include
Child Psychologists or Psychiatrists