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​​AUTISM in AFRICA

because it takes a village

1. KNOW THE SIGNS


2. ACT EARLY!


​3. THERE IS HOPE

APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS (ABA)


ABA is concerned with the effect of the environment on behavior and the effects of behavior on the environment

These environmental events (stimuli) are split into two categories, namely antecedents and consequences.


The ABC of ABA

Antecedent         Behavior         Consequences


Manding
Reinforcement

Verbal Behavior

Language and Communication Systems

Discrete Trial Training

Prompting

Behavior Management
Functional Behavior Assessment

SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES


Dyslexia (Reading difficulties)  Dyscalcula (Quantitative disorders - math  Oral language difficulties  Dysgraphia (Written language difficulties)

 Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (Disorders of attention)  Social skills deficits   Poor motor abilities


Dyslexia

Word Attack Strategy

DISSECT Strategy 

Text Enhancement Strategies to Facilitate Reading Comprehension 

Graphic organizers*  Text adaptations*  Illustrations  Diagrams  Semantic feature analysis charts*  Study guides  Full and partial outlines  Highlighting and underlining  Concept maps or spatially organized maps showing relationships between people, events, and places


Dyscalcula

Adapted Worksheets

DRAW Strategy

'Think-Aloud' Techniques


AD/HD

Positive Traits: Creativity  Flexibility  Enthusiasm and spontaneity  Lack of rigidity and good adaptability  Energy and drive

Accommodations: To help minimize distractions and increase focus…  Seating (proximity, arrangement of seats).  Changing the way information is delivered (use visuals, limit amount given at a specific time, create outlines, verbal/visual directions).  Modifying student work (modify content of sheets; allow multiple ways of demonstrating learning, chunk assignments into smaller segments, extra time).  Organization (materials, assignments, self).

Instructional Strategies:

Before lesson – signal the start of lesson; list objectives and materials on board. 

During lesson – use simple directions; vary instructional pace and vary types of activities; use visuals; give some movement breaks; allow physical manipulatives. 

After lesson – review key ideas; review assignments and write on board; use specific terms about lesson follow up; check for understanding with student.


Memorizing Techniques:

 Acronyms
 Acrostic
 Chaining
 Thinking Out loud

INTERVENTION METHODS

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ACT  EARLY!

Early intervention can make a highly significant difference. Consult with your child's doctor if you notice the signs given and think your child might have autism or any neurological disorder. 


If needed, your doctor can then refer you to a specialist to make a diagnosis. Relevant specialists include

  • Developmental Pediatricians 

  • Child Neurologists 

  • Child Psychologists or Psychiatrists